Cytology Genetics and Infectious Diseases PDF

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Cytology Genetics and Infectious Diseases
PDF Name Cytology Genetics and Infectious Diseases PDF
No. of Pages 282
PDF Size 1.85 MB
Language English
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Cytology Genetics and Infectious Diseases

Here in this post, we are creating Cytology Genetics and Infectious Diseases PDF. Cytological diagnosis of infectious diseases is as important as cytodiagnosis of malignancies because the detection of pathogens in cytological specimens is critical for prompt and appropriate patient treatment. When compared with histological diagnosis, cytology is potent in capturing microbes under Papanicolaou and Giemsa stains. The host response against the infectious agent can be predicted by the type of inflammatory cells surrounding it. The patterns of inflammatory cellular responses against extracellular and intracellular pathogens should be acknowledged. Immunocytochemical and molecular techniques can be applied even when we have only one cytology sample on hand.

The cell transfer technique is useful for immunocytochemistry and other techniques to create pluripotent materials from a glass slide. In the case of infectious disorders, including sexually transmitted diseases, early and proper diagnosis will avoid avoidable transmission of infectious agents between people, and ultimately contribute to the protection of human society.

Cytology Genetics and Infectious Diseases PDF – Summary

 1. Types of inflammatory cells

The types of inflammatory cells and their properties are briefly summarized in Table 1. The function of cells and their reproductive and migratory activity are shown

Sr.No Cell type Function Proliferative activity Migratory potential
1 Granulocyte
2  Neutrophil Phagocytosis None Migratory
3  Eosinophil Allergy, anti-helminth function None Migratory
4  Basophil Histamine production None Migratory
5 Mast cell Histamine production Proliferative Migratory
6 Monocyte Phagocytosis Proliferative Migratory
7 Macrophage Phagocytosis, granuloma reaction Proliferative Migratory
8 B-lymphocyte Humoral immunity Proliferative Migratory
9 T-lymphocyte Cellular immunity/helper activity Proliferative Migratory
10 NK cell Innate immunity Proliferative Migratory
11 Plasma cell Antibody production None None
12 Dendritic cell Antigen presentation Proliferative None

2. Defense mechanisms against infection

Defense mechanisms against infection are classified into two types: non-specific and specific. Both types act synergistically as an effective anti-infection system. Various inflammatory cells are involved in the processes.

2.1 Introduction

In the daily practice of the cytological diagnosis, cytopathologists focus on the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant diseases. Generally speaking, cytology practice serves as a screening for malignancy. However, the identification of pathogens in cyst diagnosis and cytological preparation of infectious diseases should not be underestimated. Correct cytodiagnosis of infectious diseases leads to prompt and proper treatment of patients. Histopathological diagnosis is robust in recognizing host responses against pathogens, whereas pathogens are more readily identified in a cytology sample than in a histology sample. When infectious diseases are suspected clinically, it is preferable for us to do Giemsa staining in addition to regular Papanicolaou staining.

2.2 Nonspecific defense mechanisms against infection

1. Physical barriers

The superficial mucosal layer on the epidermis and mucosal membrane of the skin plays an effective physical barrier against pathogen invasion. The cilia on the pseudostratified mucosa of the airways effectively excrete the pathogen

2. Antibacterial secretory proteins

The secretory juice secreted from the secretory glands contains various antibacterial proteins such as lactoferrin, lysozyme (muramidase), and defensins. Lactoferrin shows a bacteriostatic function by combining and competing with trivalent ferric ions, which are essential for the growth of bacteria and fungi. Lactoferrin is secreted from the lactating breast, serous salivary glands, lacrimal glands, eccrine sweat glands, gastric glands, and prostatic glands. Of particular note is that protease digestion of lactoferrin produces lactoferrin and lactoferrin, potent antimicrobial peptides derived from the lactoferrin molecule.

3 Phagocytes and natural killer (NK) cells

Bacteria that are non-specifically phagocytized by phagocytes such as neutrophils and macrophages display bacteria phagocytized by neutrophils. Due to the lack of proliferative activity, neutrophils are mainly seen in acute inflammation. Macrophages are proliferative so they appear mainly in chronic inflammation. Myeloperoxidase, lysozyme, and defensins show bactericidal activities in the phagocytic vacuole (primary granule) of neutrophils]. In the secondary (specific) granules of neutrophils, lactoferrin is contained. The main bactericidal enzyme acting in macrophages is the lysozyme NK cells which correspond to CD56-positive large granular lymphocytes.

4. Innate immunity and Toll-like receptors

Acute viral infections usually go away within a week. Strong anti-viral mediators are type I interferons (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta). IFNs are produced by Langerhans (dendritic) cells distributed between keratinocytes of the epidermis and squamous mucosa, columnar cells of the intestinal and airway mucosa, and epithelial cells]. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed on these cells specifically recognize microbe-derived components such as lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, viral double-stranded RNA, non-methylated CpG islands of DNA, and flagellin to induce IFN secretion.

3. Specific defense mechanisms against infection

Specific acquired immunity includes humoral immunity and cell-mediated (cellular) immunity. The production of specific antibodies by B-lymphocytes is the major mechanism of humoral immunity. Serum complements secreted from the liver activate the neutralizing activity of specific antibodies. The major players of cell-mediated immunity are cytotoxic (killer) T-lymphocytes and activated macrophages. It takes a certain period of time (usually from two weeks to a month) until specific acquired immunity is established.

Specific defense mechanisms against infection should be divided into two categories: systemic immunity versus local (mucosal) immunity. The invading pathogen inside the body is specifically protected by IgG-mediated humoral immunity and also by CD8-positive cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated cellular immunity.

4. Three major patterns of host responses against infection

From a pathological point of view, there are three major mechanisms of host responses against infection, depending on the type of pathogens and the mode of infection (either extracellular or intracellular infection).

  1. Neutrophilic response against external pathogens
  2. Cellular immune response against intracellular pathogens
  3. Humoral immunity through neutralizing antibody response

Summarizes the defense mechanisms against pathogens and the characteristics of host responses. The pattern of host response against pathogens is listed.

Defending cell type Pathogen Host response Compromised condition
Neutrophils Extracellular pathogens Abscess/phlegmone Neutropenia
T-cells/Macrophages Intracellular pathogens Granuloma/lymphocytic infiltration Cellular immunodeficiency*
B-cells/Neutralizing antibodies Bacterial capsule/exotoxin viremic viruses Not specified Complement deficiency

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