Forest Ecosystem PDF

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Forest Ecosystem PDF Details
Forest Ecosystem
PDF Name Forest Ecosystem PDF
No. of Pages 6
PDF Size 0.67 MB
Language English
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Forest Ecosystem

Hey folks, here we are providing Forest Ecosystem PDF to all of you. Forest Ecosystem is also known as Forest ecology. It is a scientific study of the ecosystems in forests. The ecosystem is the structural and functional unit of ecology where living organisms interact with each other and the surrounding environment.

The term “ecosystem” was first coined in 1935 by English Botanist AG Tansley. It regulates essential ecological processes, supports life systems, and provides stability. It is also responsible for the cycling of nutrients between biotic and abiotic components.

It maintains the balance between the different trophic levels in the ecosystem. It cycles minerals through the biosphere. Abiotic components help in the synthesis of organic components which involves the exchange of energy. You can learn Forest Ecosystem in detail through the given pdf.

Forest Ecosystem PDF

There are a few types of forest ecosystems listed below:

Sr.No. Types Description
1. Tropical Evergreen Rainforest: Only a small percentage of tropical forests are rainforests where the average rainfall is 80-400 inches in a year. This forest is characterized by deep and dense vegetation consisting of tall trees reaching different levels.
2. Tropical Deciduous Rainforest: The main characteristic of tropical deciduous rainforest is broad-leaved trees along with dense bushes, shrubs, etc. Two main seasons – summer and winter – are distinctly visible there. This type of forest is found in many parts of the world. A large variety of flora and fauna are found here.
3. Temperate Evergreen Forest: Temperate evergreen forest is a type of forest that is characterized by a smaller number of trees but an adequate number of ferns and mosses.
4. Temperate Deciduous Forest: Temperate deciduous forest evolves in the moist temperate region with sufficient rainfall. Here also, winter and summer are well defined, and trees shed their leaves during winter. Dominant trees are maple, oak, peach, etc.
5. Taiga/Boreal: Situated just south of the Tundra, Taiga is characterized by evergreen conifers. The average temperature is below the freezing point for almost half of the year.

Components of Forest Ecosystem

Sr.No. Components Description
1. Producers: Producers can synthesize their own food by the photosynthesis process. All green plants are considered producers of the ecosystem as they convert sunlight into the chemical energy of food.
2. Primary Consumers: Since the consumers can not prepare their own food, they depend on producers. Herbivorous animals get their food by eating the producers (plants) directly. Examples of primary consumers are grasshoppers, deer, etc.
3. Secondary Consumers: Secondary consumers draw their food from primary consumers.
4. Decomposers: The decomposers of the forest ecosystem break down dead plants and animals, returning the nutrients to the soil so that they can be used by the producers. Apart from bacteria, ants and termites are important decomposers in the Amazon rainforest. Millipedes and earthworms also help to break down dead matter.
5. Nutrient Cycle: The nutrient cycle is cyclic. For the proper functioning of ecosystems, nutrients are required. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen constitute about 95%95% of the mass of living organisms. From about 1515 to 2020 other elements are also needed in relatively small amounts. These are recycled repeatedly between the living and non-living components of the ecosystem.
6. Energy Flow: In a forest ecosystem, the grass, which draws its nutrition from sun, soil, and water, is eaten by the grasshopper, which in turn is eaten by frogs, snakes, and vultures in succession (different trophic levels). In this process of eating and being eaten, nutrients are passed from one step to the next in a food chain. The flow of energy that occurs along a food chain is called energy flow. The pyramid of energy represents the total quantity of energy at each trophic level of a food chain. The flow of energy is always unidirectional.

Functions of Forest Ecosystem

  • Goods Obtained from Forests: 

There are various types of food products such as honey, wild meat, fruits, mushrooms, palm oil and wine, and medicinal plants obtained from forests. Other than edible parts, we can obtain timber, wood biomass, cork, etc. from forests. The fuel can be extracted from old trees that are buried under the soil.

  • Ecological Functions: 

Forests play an important role in maintaining ecological factors such as climate, carbon storage, nutrient cycling, and rainfall.

  • Culture and Social Benefits:

The tribal people who live in the forests treat forests as nature goddesses. The traditional beliefs and spirituality save wild animals from hunters and cutting down of trees by urban people. A few modern people visit forests for recreation.

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