ISRO and its History PDF

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ISRO and its History
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ISRO and its History

Here in this article, we have brought for you ISRO and its History PDF. The Indian Space Research Organization is the national space agency of India, headquartered in Bangalore. It operates under the Department of Space (DOS), which is directly under the supervision of the Prime Minister of India, while the Chairman of ISRO also serves as the executive of DOS. ISRO is India’s primary agency for carrying out tasks related to the development of space-based applications, space exploration, and related technologies. [6] It is one of six government space agencies in the world to have full launch capabilities, deploy cryogenic engines, launch extraterrestrial missions and operate a large fleet of artificial satellites.

The Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was established by Jawaharlal Nehru under the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) in 1962 at the insistence of scientist Vikram Sarabhai, recognized the need for space research. INCOSPAR evolved and became ISRO in 1969 within DAE. In 1972, the Government of India established a Space Commission and DOS, bringing ISRO under its control. The establishment of ISRO thus institutionalized space research activities in India. It has since been managed by DOS, which controls various other institutions in India in the fields of astronomy and space technology.

ISRO and its History PDF – Highlights

  • The Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was established by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1962 under the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE).
  • Eminent scientist Dr. Vikram Sarabhai had a big role in this development. He understood the need of space research and was convinced of its role in the development of a nation.
  • INCOSPAR established the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) at Thumba near
  • Thiruvananthapuram on the southern tip of India. TERLS is a spaceport used to launch rockets.
    INCOSPAR became ISRO in 1969.
  • The Department of Space was created in 1972 and ISRO became a part of it and remains so till date. The Department of Space reports directly to the Prime Minister of the country.
  • During 1975–76, the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) was conducted. It has been called the ‘world’s greatest sociological experiment’. This was followed by the ‘Kheda Communications Project (KCP)’, which acted as a regional laboratory for need-based and local-specific program broadcasting in the state of Gujarat.
  • During this phase, the first Indian spacecraft ‘Aryabhata’ was developed and was launched using a Soviet launcher.
  • Another major milestone was the development of the first launch vehicle, SLV-3, with a capability to place 40 kg in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), with its first successful flight in 1980.
  • The 80s were the experimental phase, with the Bhaskara-I and II missions being pioneering steps in the remote sensing field, while the ‘Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE)’ became the precursor to future communication satellite systems.
  • Antrix Corporation Limited (ACL) is a marketing arm of ISRO for the promotion and commercial exploitation of space products, technical consultancy services, and transfer of technologies developed by ISRO.

ISRO has several facilities dedicated to a particular area of ​​study in space. Some of them are as follows:

  • Vikram Sarabhai Space Center (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram – Space research activities were initiated in India during the 1960s under Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, the founder of the Indian space program.
  • Liquid Propulsion Systems Center (LPSC), Thiruvananthapuram
  • Satish Dhawan Space Center (SDSC-SHAR), Sriharikota
  • Space Application Center (SAC), Ahmedabad
  • National Remote Sensing Center (NRSC), Hyderabad

ISRO Milestones

  • The first Indian-made sounding rocket was the RH-75 (Rohini-75). It was launched in 1967 from TERLS. Its weight was only 32 kg. The Rohini series of sounding rockets were developed by ISRO for atmospheric and meteorological studies.
  • ISRO built its first satellite in 1975 and named it Aryabhata. It was started by the Soviet Union.
  • The first Indian-made launch vehicle was SLV-3 and it was used to launch the Rohini satellite in 1980.
  • ISRO launched its first INSAT satellite in 1982. It was a communication satellite. It was named INSAT-1A, which failed in orbit. The next communication satellite INSAT-1B was launched in 1983.
  • Established in 1983 with the commissioning of INSAT-1B, the Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system is one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems in the Asia-Pacific region, with nine operational communication satellites placed in geostationary orbit. The details regarding INSAT-1B are available on the linked page. INSAT systems provide services for telecommunications, television broadcasting, satellite news collection, social applications, weather forecasting, disaster warning and search and rescue operations.
  • ISRO also launched the first IRS (Remote Sensing Satellite) in 1988.
  • ISRO has developed three types of launch vehicles (or rockets), namely PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle), GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV
  • Mark III or LVM). More details about GSLV Mk III are available on the link given here.
  • ISRO launched its first lunar mission Chandrayaan I in 2008.
  • It also launched the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) or Mangalyaan in 2014. With this, India became the first country to successfully put a satellite into Mars orbit in its first attempt and became the fourth space agency and the first Asian space agency. to do this. Read details about Mangalyaan mission here.
  • ISRO has launched several small satellites mainly for experimental purposes like INS-1C, Aryabhata, Apple,
  • Rohini Technology Payload, Youthsat etc. This experiment includes remote sensing, atmospheric studies, payload development, orbit control, recovery technology and more.
  • Scramjet (Supersonic Combustion Ramjet) Engine – In August 2016, ISRO successfully test-fired the scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) engine. It uses hydrogen as fuel and oxygen from the atmospheric air as oxidizer.
  • ISRO’s Advanced Technology Vehicle (ATV), an advanced-sounding rocket, was a solid rocket booster used for testing scramjet engines in supersonic conditions. The test was the first short duration experimental test of ISRO’s scramjet engine with a hypersonic flight at Mach 6. The new propulsion system will complement ISRO’s reusable launch vehicle with a longer flight life. Read in detail about ISRO’s Advanced Technology Vehicle on the given link.
  • In 2017, ISRO created another world record by launching 104 satellites in a single rocket. It launched its heaviest rocket ever, the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-Mark III, and placed GSAT 19 into orbit.
  • India’s manned mission to space, also called Gaganyaan, is part of the government’s ambition to make India a global low-cost provider of services in space. The launch vehicle for this mission will carry heavy payloads into space. GSLV Mk-III with cryogenic engine is being developed for this purpose. ISRO has already test-fired GSLV Mk-III with Experimental Crew Module (Re-entry and Recovery Technology) and Crew Escape System (CES).

Objectives of the ISRO

  • Operational flights of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV).
  • Developmental flight of Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV- Mk II).
  • Development of heavy lift Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-Mk III).
  • Design, Development, and Realization of Communication Satellites.
  • Design, Development, and Realization of Earth Observation Satellites.
  • Development of Navigation Satellite Systems.
  • Development of satellites for Space Science and Planetary Exploration.
  • Earth Observation Applications.
  • Space-based systems for Societal Applications.
  • Advanced Technologies and newer initiatives.
  • Training, Capacity Building, and Education.
  • Promotion of Space technology.
  • Infrastructure / Facility Development for space research.
  • International Cooperation.

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