Nationalism in India Class 10 PDF

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Nationalism in India Class 10
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Nationalism in India Class 10

Dear readers, today we are going to share the Nationalism in India Class 10 PDF for all of you. Nationalism is one of the important topics for the people. Nationalism in India means a change in people’s understanding of their identity and sense of belonging. Through this article, you can know about Nationalism in India which can be very valuable for you. For those looking for Nationalism in India class 10 notes, we have covered all the important topics here.

Nationalism in India is described as the chronological account of our freedom struggle against the alien rule that is the British rule. Indian nationalism, developed as a concept during the Indian independence movement fought against the colonial British Raj. In this chapter, students will get to know the story from the 1920s and study the nonCooperation and Civil Disobedience Movements.

Nationalism in India Class 10 PDF: Introduction

Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation should be congruent with the state. The growth of modern nationalism is intimately connected to the anti-colonial movement. People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.

1. The Satyagraha :

(i) It emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi successfully organized the Satyagraha movement in various places—(i) 1916 Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive
plantation system.
(ii) 1917—Kheda district of Gujrat was affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic.
(iii) 1918—Ahmedabad—Cotton mill workers.

2. The Rowlett Act:

  • 1919, Gandhiji decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act.
  • This act focuses on the Govt Powers to repress political activities.
  • Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violence civil disobedience against this act.
  • Rallies were organized in various cities.
  • Workers went on strikes.
  • Shops closed down.
  • Communication system disrupted.
  • Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession.
  • Martial law was imposed.
  • Jalianwalla Bagh incident took place.

3. Non-Cooperation Movement:

  • Famous book Hind Swaraj (1909)
  • British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians.
  • Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and swaraj would come.
  • Non–Cooperation movements begin a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.
  • A civil campaign of disobedience would be launched.
  • A compromise was worked–out and the non-cooperation programme was adopted in December 1920 at the Nagpur Congress session.

4. Khilafat Movement (1921):

With the defeat of Ottoman Turkey for defending khalifa’s temporal powers.

(1) The Movement in the Towns:

  • The movement started with middle-class social groups in the cities.
  • Thousands of students left schools run by the Govt., Teachers/Principals/H.M. resigned.
  • The Council election was boycotted in most of the provinces except Madras.
  • Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign clothes burnt on huge bonfires.
  • Traders refused to trade foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
  • People weaved only Indian clothes and handlooms.
  • At last, the movement in the towns gradually slowed down and students back to the government schools and lawyers joined back to work in the courts.

(2) Rebellion in the countryside:

  • The non-cooperation movement spread to the countryside.
  • The movement was against Talukdars1 and ‘landlords’.
  • Peasants were ‘begar’ and work at landlords without any payment.
  • The peasants’ movements demanded a reduction of revenue, abolition of ‘begar’ and a social boycott.
  • 1920, Jawahar Lal Nehru Visits Villages in Awadh and trying to understand their grievance.
  • In October, Awadh Kisan Sabha was set-up headed by Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru and Baba Ram Chandra.
  • After one month, more than 300 branches had been set up in the villages.
  • They were unhappy and the houses of Talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted and grain hoards were taken–over.
  • January 6, 1921, the police in United Provinces fired at peasants near the Rae–Bareli.
  • Tribal peasants interpreted the message of Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of Swaraj.

(3) Swaraj in the Plantation:

  • For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were closed.
  • Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, Plantation workers were not permitted to leave the Tea gardens without permission.
  • When they heard of the Non-Cooperation movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
  • They were demanding Swatantra Bharat.

Civil Disobedience Movement

  • February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw from the Non-Cooperation Movement. He felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggle.
  • When the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted by the slogan ‘Go back, Simon. All parties including the Congress and the Muslim League participated in the demonstrations.
  • October 1929, a round table conference to discuss a future constitution.
  • December 1929, Jawahar Lal Nehru demanded Purana Swaraj’ or full independence for India.
  • It was declared that 26 January 1930, would be celebrated as Independence Day when people were to take a pledge to struggle for complete independence.

1. The Salt March-

  • Gandhiji found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.
  • On 31 January 1930, Gandhiji sent a letter to Irwin stating eleven demands. The most important demand was to abolish the salt tax.
  • Gandhiji gave an ultimatum that if the demands were not fulfilled by 11 March, the Congress would launch a civil disobedience campaign, but Irwin was unwilling to negotiate.
  • Mahatma Gandhi started his famous Salt march over 240 miles from Sabarmati to Dandi.
  • Thousands from different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated it in front of government factories.

2. How Participants Saw the Movement

The Rich peasant communities, Poor Peasants, Business classes, Industrial working classes and Women-all participated in Civil Disobedience Movement.

For Rich Peasants :

(i) It was a struggle against high revenue, they were hard hit by the trade depression and falling Prices. But they were disappointed when the movement was called–off in 1931 without the revenue rates being revised.
(ii) So in 1932, when the movement was restarted many of them refused to participate.

For Poor Peasants :

(i) Their main aim in participating in the movement was to remit the unpaid rent to the landlords.
(ii) They participated in a variety of radicals movement led by socialists and communists.
(iii) But, Congress was unwilling to support no rent campaigns, therefore the relationship between poor peasants and the congress remained uncertain.

For Business Class :

(i) They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods.
(ii) They formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927 to organize business Interests.
(iii) Failure of round table conference created disinterest among business classes towards the movement as their interest was not served.

For Industrial Classes-

(i) Industrial classes in Nagpur Region only participated in this movement.
(ii) Workers participated by adopting Gandhian ideas like the boycott of foreign goods against their low wages and poor working conditions.
(iii) Congress was reluctant to include workers’ demands therefore, this act again alienated Congress and workers.

For Women’s

(i) Large scale participation of women in protest marches, manufactured Salts and picketed foreign cloths and liquor shops.
(ii) Women were from high caste families, in rural areas they were from the rich-peasants household.
(iii) However, Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any authoritative position.

3. The limits of the Civil Disobedience Movement :

(i) Ignorance of Untouchables in movement.
(ii) Non Participation of Muslim Political organizations in the movement worsened the gap between Hindus and Muslims.
(iii) Demand of Muslims for reserved seats in the Central Assembly Created Conflicts between Congress and the Muslim League.
(iv) Concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India alienated large sections of Muslims from the struggle.

Some Important Dates:

  • 1918–19: Distressed U.P. peasants organised by Baba Ramchandra.
  • April 1919: Gandhian hartal against Rowlatt Act, Jalianwala Bagh Massacre
  • January 1921: Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movements launched
  • February 1922: Chauri Chaura, Gandhi withdraws from the Non-Cooperation movement.

The Rowlatt Act

In 1919, Mahatma Gandhi launched a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act. The Act gives the government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed the detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

The British government decided to clamp down on nationalists by witnessing the outrage of the people. On April 10th, police in Amritsar fired on a peaceful procession, which provoked widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations. Martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command.

The Salt March and the Civil Disobedience Movement

On 31 January 1930, Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands. Among the demands, the most stirring of all was the demand to abolish the salt tax which is consumed by the rich and the poor. The demands needed to be fulfilled by 11 March or else Congress would start a civil disobedience campaign.

The famous salt march was started by Mahatma Gandhi accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers. The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhiji’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi. On 6 April he reached Dandi, and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling seawater. This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Nationalism in India History Class 10 PDF

  • Scholars frequently place the beginning of nationalism in the late 18th century or early 19th century with the American Declaration of Independence or with the French Revolution.
  • The consensus is that nationalism as a concept was firmly established by the 19th century.
  • In histories of nationalism, the French Revolution (1789) is seen as an important starting point, not only for its impact on French nationalism but even more for its impact on Germans and Italians and on European intellectuals.
  • The template of nationalism, as a method for mobilizing public opinion around a new state based on popular sovereignty, went back further than 1789: philosophers such as Rousseau and Voltaire, whose ideas influenced the French Revolution, had themselves been influenced or encouraged by the example of earlier constitutionalist liberation movements, notably the Corsican Republic (1755–1768) and American Revolution (1775–1783).

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q.1) What is nationalism?

Ans. The desire/wish of a group of people who have a similar race, culture, and language to form a country.

Q.2) Why Non-cooperation?

Ans. According to Mahatma Gandhi, British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians. Non-cooperation movement is proposed in stages. It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods.

After many hurdles and campaigning between the supporters and opponents of the movement, finally, in December 1920, the Non-Cooperation Movement was adopted.

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